Tiwi Islands – Northern Territory

weed acacia mangium october 2009

http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/05/05/2561101.htm

ABC NEWS

Potential weed grown in NT plantations

Posted Tue May 5, 2009 11:05am AEST

The Northern Territory Government has confirmed it is investigating a plant being grown on plantations on the Tiwi Islands as a high risk weed.

The forestry company Great Southern is growing the plant, Acacia Mangium, on 29,000 hectares of land on Melville Island to export as woodchips to countries in the Asia Pacific region.
The Environment Department’s Diana Leader says acacia is being examined as a potential weed because of its prolific seed production, rapid growth and strong competitive ability against other plants.
“It’s become a potential weed in the tropical environment because of its rapid and extremely vigorous growth in the right places,” Ms Leader said.
“It has prolific seed production and it can tolerate very acidic soils and low nutrient status soils and has a strong competitive ability and relative freedom from natural pests and diseases.”
But she says it will be another 12 months before a weed status on acacia is finalised.
“We do firstly an assessment of its weediness and then a look at the feasibility of controlling it and when we get the results from that, as to whether they come out having a high risk, then we look at cost-benefit analysis to see whether or not it would be able to be managed.”
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LINKS TO INFO RE: THE INVASIVE WEED BEHAVIOUR OF ACACIA MANGIUM THROUGHOUT THE WORLD
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from: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/NTFP-EP_MailingList/message/100

TABLE 1. An example of 50 species commonly considered as underutilised
crops that are recorded as invasive in at least one country or region of
the world.

Abelmoschus esculenta
Acacia karroo
Acacia mangium
Acacia mearnsii
Amaranthus retroflexus
Amaranthus spinosis
Atriplex halimus
Azadirachta indica
Berberis vulgaris
Bidens pilosa
Brassica juncea
Brassica napus
Brassica oleracea
Chenopodium album
Chromolaena odorata
Cichorium intybus
Colocasia esculenta
Crataegus monogyna
Eleagnus angustifolia
Eugenia uniflora
Gliricidia sepium
Hippophae rhamnoides
Imperata cylindrica
Ipomea aquatica
Jatropha curcas
Kigelia africana
Leucaena leucocephala
Moringa oleifera
Opuntia ficus-indica
Oxalis tuberosa
Panicum repens
Panicum sumatrense
Parthenium argentatum
Paspalum scrobiculatum
Passiflora foetida
Passiflora mollissima
Pastinaca sativa
Pithecellobium dulce
Portulaca oleracea
Prunus serotina
Psidium cattleianum
Psidium guajava
Ricinus communis
Salsola vermiculata
Solanum nigrum
Spathodea campanulata
Stipa tenacissima
Syzygium cumini
Terminalia catappa
Ziziphus mauritiana

TABLE 2. A sample of five databases containing information and
datasheets on invasive plants, as an indicator of the type and volume of
information available. There are several hundred more searchable
databases, most specific to countries, regions or organism types.

Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).
Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR), Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.
http://www.hear.org/gcw/
The largest single database of weeds, including over 28,000 species. A
useful starting point for searches, being an updated version of a 900
page book by Rod Randall (2002).

Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist
Group (ISSG), Auckland, New Zealand. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome
Detailed information on approximately 150 invasive plants including
control and location specific data. Part of a larger database containing
470 invasive species of all organism types.

Crop Protection Compendium (CPC).
CAB International (CABI), Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK.
http://www.cabi.org/default.aspx?site=170&page=1030
A fully searchable database including almost 500 weeds and invasive
plants, along with over 2000 other plant pests. A specific Invasive
Species Compendium is currently being developed.

Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk
(HEAR), Honolulu, Hawaii, USA http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html
Information on a large number of plants which are present on Pacific
islands or Pacific rim countries. A good example of regularly updated
region-specific data that has wider value.http://www.hear.org/Pier/species/acacia_mangium.htm

Invasive and Exotic Species (invasive.org).
A joint project by the Bugwood Network, USDA-FS and USDA-APHIS-PPQ, USA.
http://www.invasive.org/weeds.cfm
Information on 630 ‘invasive and exotic weeds’, part of a larger
database including 1000 invasive species of all organism types,
concentrating on those affecting North America.

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More Links…
Invasive in the Pacific, incl. Cook Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Hawaii, Comoro Islands

http://www.hear.org/Pier/species/acacia_mangium.htm

http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/forestry/trees/Acacia_Azadirachta.html

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Invasive in Borneo

http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/NSTLQK_NSTL_QK8917225.aspx

(2005)
Growth and competition between seedlings of an invasive plantation tree, Acacia mangium, and those of a native Borneo heath-forest species, Melastoma beccarianum

An introduced plantation tree species, Acacia mangium Willd., is becoming invasive in the Brunei region of Borneo. To examine its invasive potential, a greenhouse, additive series experiment (target-neighbour) involving seedlings of A. mangium and those of a common native heath-forest (kerangas), Melastoma beccarianum Cogn. was carried out under low and high light regimes in intra-and interspecific combinations over a 6-month period. Significant variations in growth parameters (other than biomass allocation patterns) existed amongst seedlings from different treatments. A major part of this variation in growth could be attributed to the main factors of target species, neighbour species, and competition (seedling density). For the growth variables examined, the target-species response was not consistent across light regimes. Under high light conditions, Acacia was the better competitor; the Lotka-Volterra competition coefficient effect of Melastoma on Acacia was lower (α = 0.30) than the effect of Acacia on Melastoma (β = 0.54). However, the reverse occurred under low light conditions with Melastoma gaining the upper hand (α = 1.45 and β = 0.44). These results show that light (and hence disturbance) can strongly influence the pattern and intensity of both intra- and interspecific competition between invasive and local flora species. Relatively intact forest is unlikely to be invaded by Acacia trees (as they are poor competitors under this scenario). On the other hand, the Acacia trees can easily invade disturbed forests, especially those prone to recurring drought and fire, and over time convert the habitats to nearly monospecific stands, as is presently being observed in Brunei.
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Invasive in India
http://www.sawf.org/newedit/edit12082008/AnandsDish.asp

“…Now we come to the more controversial species. The first is Acacia mangium. It can grow up to 30 meters. It is a native of Australia (Queensland), Molluccan islands, Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. Large scale plantations have been developed in Indonesia and Malaysia. However, it is invasive in the sense that it replaces the local trees. In Tamilnadu the Forest department is cutting these trees.

A. mangium is a fast growing species with numerous seeds and therefore it outperforms other trees. Each tree produces a kilogram of seed per yer year which is about 80,000 to 110,000 seeds. The result is that it stifles the growth of the native trees and disturbs the ecological balance. The tree has been found invasive in Sabah, Africa and Melville Island in Australia. The plus point of the specie is that it has rapid growth, and is tolerant of very poor soils. It can go upto 30 metres, 15m and 40 cm girth in 3 years and 23 metres in 9 years. Wood chips are used as paper pulp, and timber is used for buildings and furniture. A hybrid of A. mangium and A. auriculiformis have been found to be more vigorous and better timber. ”
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Invasive in Brazil
http://www.institutohorus.org.br/pr_controle_iema_es_eng.htm

Twenty invasive alien species were recorded in the Paulo Cesar Vinha State Park during a survey carried out in 2006/2007 with the Federal University of Espirito Santo.

The main invasive alien species that threaten the park biodiversity are acacia (Acacia mangium),…”

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http://www.hear.org/gcw/scientificnames/scinamea.htm
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One Response to “weed acacia mangium october 2009”

  1. Mangium - Invasive Weed in Sabah - FAO said

    http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropView?id=2658

    FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN

    “…There is a possibility that the tree could become a weed, especially if poor provenances are introduced and the tree has become a weed in Sabah….”

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